Developing an Irrigation Fund in Tanzania

Irrigation Fund in TanzaniaAgriculture in Tanzania consumes over 90 percent of water with most of it using inefficient gravity open canal and flooding or basin technologies. These methods lead to up to 45 percent water losses. This is despite the fact that critical parts of Tanzania and the Pangani River Basin, in particular, are considered “water-stressed” regions having 1,200 cubic meters per capita of renewable internal fresh water, compared to 1,608 cubic meters for Tanzania as a whole by 2015 (WB, Tanzania Economic Update 2017).

Although most of the farmers use buckets and watering cans, over the last few years, the use of 1.5-6.7hp motorized pumps combined with flood or basin irrigation has been on the rise. Though easy to install and cheapest among available technologies (compared to solar, electricity and wind), these pumps have high maintenance costs and short lifespan. At the same time, the open canal systems have the lowest efficiency rates of only 15-25 percent compared to 60-80 percent for lined canals and 90 percent for piped systems. The flooding/basin application systems on the other hand, though cheaper, also has low-efficiency rates of 60-70 percent compared to 90 percent for drip and 80 percent for sprinkler systems.

In 2018, the 2030 WRG Partnership in Tanzania plans to leverage funding from Rikolto (formerly VECO East Africa) to conduct focused assessments, carry out pilots and eventually develop viable financial products for water efficient irrigation technologies required by semi-commercial, commercial smallholder farmers and medium-sized farmers in Kikuletwa Catchment in Kilimanjaro region. This initiative aims to inform an ongoing design of a National Irrigation Financing Facility targeting to improve water use efficiency and agricultural water productivity. The partnership is working in collaboration with Financial Sector Deepening Trust (FSDT), Tanzania Agricultural Development Bank and National Irrigation Commission to name a few.

The planned assessment aims to target smallholder farming groups such as:

(i) Semi–Commercial Smallholder farmers with cultivated land < 2ha
(ii) Commercial Smallholder with cultivated land (10-100 ha)
(iii) Medium sized (Emerging) Farmers with cultivated land (2-10 ha)

During the assessment, 2030WRG expects to develop and test three water efficient technological and financial solutions.

This assessment will focus on nailing down the suggested solutions per farmer profile as well as the expected return on investment. At the same time, a quick scan of the existing financial products will be done. The research findings will also be used in persuading other financial institutions to develop lending products for irrigation financing.

The assessment will analyse the required investments costs and margins of the selected technologies and at the same time determine whether the investment required for the technology is affordable and adds value to the smallholder farmers.,. The end result will be to prove the investment case in order to increase financing by commercial banks or any other financial institutions. The assessment will also assess the existing range of financing options offered by equipment providers, commercial, public and donor lending institutions available in Tanzania and the East Africa region. The research aims to ensure that financing schemes are reviewed for different farmer profiles i.e. large/smallholder farmers, individual, cluster/groups of farmers, different technologies including a diverse portfolio of loans from the farmers’/investors perspective;

Developing technological and financial packages for irrigation financing
There are several companies supplying irrigation equipment, including pumps, pipes, sprinklers, centre pivots, linear move systems, and precision drip and micro-sprinkler systems. However, these companies’ products are suitable for medium-sized farmers and large-scale farmers. The working group aims to design solutions technological and financial solutions for the semi-commercial smallholder farmers and commercial farmers. While doing this, particular focus will be put in ensuring appropriateness of technology in terms of affordability, suitability, accessibility and matching the same with skills of different profiles of farmers.

Market testing and rollout
The stakeholders will select the value chains and a number of smallholder farmers for a pilot of the prototype financial products. During this stage, useful information will be collected and collated to enable improvements to be made on technology and financial products. To buy down some risks, the stakeholders will seek funding for piloting of new financing and technology products. Successful pilots will be commercialized and rollout.

Karnataka Cabinet Approval of Urban Waste Water Reuse Policy

The Government of Karnataka approved a policy for wastewater reuse for urban centres in December 2017, marking the culmination of extensive stakeholder deliberations to support the enabling environment for wastewater reuse. The policy, coupled with the establishment of a Wastewater Reuse Resource Cell to implement the policy, has been developed under the Urban Water Workstream of 2030WRG’s Karnataka Multi-Stakeholder Platform for Water (MSP-Water).

2030WRG established a multi-stakeholder wastewater reuse policy committee, which comprised members from the Government of Karnataka, private sector and civil society, including Toyota Kirloskar Motors, Jindal Steel Works, Arghyam, and Biome Environmental Trust, among others; and supported policy drafting.

The policy provides a comprehensive framework for wastewater reuse in Karnataka, integrating principles of cost recovery, equity and sustainability for urban wastewater management. It also includes a special focus on industrial reuse of treated urban wastewater, with the intention of supporting financial sustainability of urban local bodies and mitigating water supply risks for industry. Salient features of the policy, which covers all Class I and II urban centres, include,

• Reuse of not less than 20% STW is targeted, as a combined average across sectors, of total urban wastewater generated for identified Karnataka urban centers by 2020;
• At least 10 major cities/towns will have adopted integrated water resource management plans, developed as multi-sectoral initiatives and incorporating wastewater reuse principles and implementation plans therein, by 2020;
• Industrial estates/ zones within [30 km] of a sewage treatment plant (STP) mandatorily examine, as a first option, available secondary treated wastewater (STW) from the STP;
• The Department of Industries and Commerce may set a voluntary target for use of STW to comprise (indicatively) 20% of the total state-wide industrial water use, including energy sector, by 2020;
• Policy specifically seeks to acknowledge and encourage the practice of localized treatment of wastewater through constructed wetlands;
• Agricultural, industrial and urban non-potable uses will be considered to contribute to the reuse target;
• Tariff proposed (in Rs/KL) is applicable at the plant gate, or at in-city locations en-route of the sewerage network. The off-taker is responsible for meeting additional cost of conveyance to a specified location;
• Where off-take for industrial reuse requires tertiary treatment of a specific volume of STW to be undertaken by the city, operational costs for the same shall be recovered from industry through additional charges;
• ULBs will explore Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as a possible option for implementation of wastewater reuse projects.

An important feature of the policy is the constitution of a Wastewater Resource Cell to facilitate policy implementation. The Resource Cell, established at the state level will act as an information and transaction facilitation unit to support the development of projects, with the aim of ensuring that relevant quality parameters for each reuse category are met, towards development of innovative, cost-effective, and context-specific solutions for wastewater treatment and reuse. The centre will establish connections with global partners to reinforce and accelerate the transfer of best practices and shared learnings from implementation of wastewater reuse initiatives globally. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilitiesof other various bodies under the policy include,

• Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) will be responsible for monitoring secondary treated wastewater quality from treatment plants;
• Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) will co-ordinate alignment of wastewater reuse projects to AMRUT – Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation/alternate Government of India programs;
• Urban Development Department will undertake monitoring the performance of wastewater reuse projects, Budget and resource allocation, and Active partnerships;
• Department of Industries and Commerce will establish voluntary target for treated wastewater to comprise 20% of the total state-wide industrial water use by 2020;
• Department of Energy will coordinate partnerships of thermal power plants with urban centres within 50 km radius for off-take of all STW available.

Management Committee constituted as part of the policy will monitor and supervise the implementation of the policy, chaired by the Secretary, Urban Development Department.

2030WRG’s work on wastewater reuse builds upon its earlier hydro-economic analyses on:
• Karnataka’s urban-industrial sectors (;
• Rapid assessment of wastewater reuse for Karnataka;
• A practitioner’s guide on circular economy pathways for municipal wastewater in India (

A working group to support the improvement of water and sanitation in small and medium municipalities in São Paulo

With the initiative and support of the 2030 WRG program in São Paulo, a working group is being established with the objective of supporting the implementation of new financing procedures that will allow greater effectiveness of investments and improved operation of autonomous sanitation services in small and medium-sized municipalities.

While Sabesp, a publicly traded water utility company controlled by the State of Sao Paulo, is responsible for providing water and sewage service to 366 municipalities of the State of Sao Paulo, there are 279 small and medium municipalities that operate their own water and sanitation systems in the state. These autonomous municipalities have a total population of 16.4 million inhabitants, approximately 38% of the population of the State of São Paulo.

Despite receiving subsidies from the Government of São Paulo for decades, the performance of sanitation services in many of these small and medium municipalities that operate without concession contracts with the state company (SABESP) or with private enterprises, remains very low. Although there is no available consistent data on sewage treatment, the water quality at the regional water bodies shows that only a small portion of their domestic sewage is collected and treated. In addition, even the small portion that is treated presents systematically lower quality of effluents than the legally defined standards for release into bodies of water.

The working group aims to identify the obstacles and barriers that have often rendered the investments historically ineffective, as well as to develop and propose consistent alternatives for financing and sustainably managing local systems. The various types of challenges are being identified.

In many cases, the local implementation of water and sanitation services does not favor the creation of technical management bodies capable of structuring projects, developing bids, controlling contracts. One proposal is to discuss the creation of clusters of municipalities that would allow the joint operation and the contracting of private services.

There are, however, political and institutional challenges for the organization of regional services which would articulate several municipalities. For example, the discussion about which would be the best criteria for the establishment of regional services raises concerns, also because the municipal administrative boundaries do not coincide with those of hydrographic basins.

Another complex challenge is the economic sustainability of sanitation services, since for many mayors the political costs of implementing sustainable tariffs for sanitation services are unacceptable.

Finally, subsidies policies and other sources of public financing need better levels of transparency. This might require initiatives involving public communication and debates that would guide the transition to sustainable tariffs. When subsidies are delivered without comprehensive discussions, the common consequence is social injustice and inefficient use of the resources.

The working group will support the development of technical, financial, legal and institutional solutions in coordination with the main local partners, in order to promote sustainable public and private investments and guarantee improvements in the quality of the rivers and streams of the State.

Karnataka Multi Stakeholder Partnership for Water: A Journey in Progress

Most people who work in the water sector would associate their work in some way with Sustainable Development Goal 6 which has several objectives related to the achievement of water security in its several manifestations. But there is little discussion of the fact that the path to the realization of Goal 6 lies in Goal 17 which is about the need for partnerships. This is a journey which is not always straightforward, sometimes not in a tidy sequence and almost always requires patience and persistence. Despite these possible road bumps, the 2030 World Resources Group has embarked on this journey in several countries, among them India and among the states in India also in Karnataka.

The first step has been to arrive at a productive working relationship with the State Government based on a mutual identification of the water security challenges that need addressing. This is the first part of the journey. In turn, this needs a sustained effort to bring together a group of organizations in the private and not for profit sectors that can bring competence and commitment to projects and processes that can show demonstrable results in specific locations. There is then the challenge of scaling up the approaches demonstrated in these projects across the state.

The work streams that have been identified for this purpose are particularly relevant for a number of reasons.

The problems of impending water stress make the promotion of efficient use of water for agriculture, by far the biggest user of water, an imperative for conservation and sustainability. This is very much a direction that the State government is committed to following and in which farmers and private sector organizations can work together to apply new technologies, drip irrigation among others. By working on sugar cane and paddy, the biggest users of water in the agriculture sector the potential for scale is enormous. But conservation of water has to be combined with efforts to support livelihoods of farmers which is why the promotion of farm to market corridors is so important as another step in the chain to maximize the benefits of water-efficient agriculture.

The workstream on the treatment, recovery and reuse of wastewater can benefit not just urban residents but also generate water for industrial use and agriculture in the surrounding hinterlands of towns and cities. Which is why the State Government’s policies on mainstreaming this approach are so important. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development’s interest in systemizing this approach is not only of benefit to industrial users of water but also is a way of demonstrating private sector’s support to the larger goals of sustainability and the promotion of public benefit.

These efforts require not just continuous effort but also the ability to record, analyze and disseminate the results to make a strong case for such approaches over ever increasing geographies. And imagination is needed to turn large amounts of data to usable information and knowledge, not just to members of the partnership and other practitioners but also more widely to members of the lay public. This is where civil society organizations can play a significant part.

As the work grows in scale and complexity there will be an inclination to immerse ourselves in our own projects and work streams. Without compromising any attention to detail it will be important to keep ourselves abreast of the work of other organizations in the state (eg the Gnana Aayoga, the State Knowledge Commission and the Advance Center of Integrated Water Management) which are also committed to the development of sound water policies and practice. Even if complete convergence is not always possible, duplication and contradiction can be avoided in this way.

Ravi Narayanan
Co-Chair Steering Board
Karnataka Multi Stakeholder Partnership for Water

Ravi Narayanan is currently Chair of the Asia Pacific Water Forum, International Mentor to the Japan Water Forum, Chair of the Water Integrity Network and Advisor to the Arghyam Foundation in India. He was a member of the World Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure (the Camdessus Panel) and the UN Millennium Task Force on Water and Sanitation. He is an associate of the National Institute of Advanced Studies in Bangalore, India. With degrees in Physics and Engineering from Delhi and Cambridge Universities, Ravi began his career in the corporate sector in the UK and India before moving to the not-for-profit sector. As part of the latter, he was formerly Asia Director for Action Aid and Chief Executive of Water Aid. He was awarded an honorary CBE by the UK Government in 2009 for water and sanitation services to poor communities in Asia and Africa. Ravi Narayanan is a resident of Bangalore.

Water accounting – an essential planning tool for agri-water sector recognized at the top-most policy-making authority in Maharashtra

Mumbai, February 12, 2018 – 2030 WRG and the Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority (MWRRA) organized an important discussion on water accounting as a policy tool on 12 February 2018. The Maharashtra Multi-Stakeholder Platform is already working on Rain-fed-, Command Area- and Urban Industrial Water Security. Complementing the three workstreams in Maharashtra, 2030 WRG and a key participant in the MSP process, the Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority (MWRRA), brought to the forefront the essentials of water balancing and accounting through a discussion around River Basin Water Stewardship.

Water accounting efforts have been made by several stakeholders in India. The River Basin Stewardship and Water Accounting workshop included participation from leading not-for-profits and researchers focused on water issues in Maharashtra, namely, ACWADAM, CII, IIT-Bombay and WOTR. This workshop was attended by experts from MWRRA, Water Resources Department, The World Bank, Tata Sustainability Group, ITC, Tata Trusts, Urban Local Bodies, American Water Works Association to name a few.

The Confederation of Indian Industry (Vishnu Khedkar) and a leading private sector, ITC (K. Binoy), deployed an interesting tool using GIS-mapping, rainfall and river-flows and groundwater data in the Ghod Basin, in the proximity of the urban and industrial district of Pune. ACWADAM (Dr. Himanshu Kulkarni) presented their work related to groundwater and aquifer mapping techniques highlighting empirical evidence gathered through specific activities in Maharashtra. WOTR (Crispino Lobo) presented the essential links between water balance studies driven through community participation as a design tool to drive decisions related to cropping patterns in the rainfed areas of Maharashtra. IIT-Bombay (Prof. Milind Sohoni) presented the essentials of water balancing at the water-shed/villages that have been used in Maharashtra as a tool to make important investment decisions related to Government of Maharashtra’s more crop per drop project implementations.

While the Maharashtra-related bottom-up approaches were presented at the workshop, Prof. Wim Bastiaanssen from IHE-Delft presented the global best practice Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which uses satellite remote-sensing-based data to capture the water stress in the state of Maharashtra. WA+ tool informs the users and policy-makers on water accounting similar to financial accounting using fact-sheets, tables and maps. This methodology is already being deployed at the national level in India through 2030WRG’s engagement on “Blueprint for Water Accounting”, involving training of Central Water Commission, Central Groundwater Board, National Institute of Hydrology and others on the WA + methodology. As a result of the workshop in Mumbai, the Maharashtra MSP, in partnership with IHE-Delft, is planning a teaser WA+ training workshop for participants from Maharashtra during the coming quarter.

Further reading:

Maharashtra Water Multi-Stakeholder Platform Steering Board

Presentations made at the River Basin Stewardship and Water Accounting Workshop of 12 February 2018

An Exploration Workshop on Gender and Water in Agriculture in Maharashtra State

Mumbai, February 8, 2018 – 2030 WRG organized its first Workshop on Gender and Water in Agriculture in the State of Maharashtra to bring to the forefront some relevant work undertaken by key stakeholders promoting women’s participation in water resources management in the agricultural sector.

Ms. Archana, a successful farmer, leading an all-women Farmer Producer Company in Maharashtra with support of Swayam Shikshan Prayog. She was an active participant at the Workshop.

Given that almost 80% women in rural areas are predominantly engaged in agriculture and allied sectors, there are several civil society and private sector organizations working towards improving women’s participation in agricultural production systems (including efficient use of water resources) which can directly contribute to family income. The workshop saw participation from:

• Government: Project on Climate Resilient Agriculture, Department of Agriculture
• Civil Society: Tata Trusts, Society of Participatory Ecosystem Management (SOPPECOM) and Swayam Shikshan Prayog
• Private Sector: Future Group, Rabo Bank, ITC Limited and Jain Farm Fresh
• Multi-laterals: UNDP and International Finance Corporation

Although women play significant roles as farmers, workers and entrepreneurs, they face severe constraints in accessing productive resources (including water) compared to men. Thus, emphasizing women’s role in agribusiness, Eika Banerjee, CEO of Future Learning (Future Group) indicated, “the need to shift women’s role in agriculture from a development perspective to a market-driven solutions perspective.” Seema Kulkarni, Secretary, SOPPECOM pointed out, “women should not be silent participants but should have a voice in decision making as a part of village-level committees.”

The Workshop was a passionate call from partners to mainstream women in agriculture through collaborative and collective action. Some of the key recommendations included:

• Improving availability and access of data on women farmers (example – lack of data availability on women farmers who are also landowners),
• Developing knowledge products that can support better implementation of government policies,
• Promoting public-private partnership models in agriculture value chains that can improve market linkages for women farmers
• Enabling ecosystem changes i.e. providing a conducive environment for women to participate in the agricultural sector.

The participants at the Workshop agreed on taking the gender and water agenda forward through a formalized process to be anchored by the Government of Maharashtra. The Workshop is a part of the Maharashtra Water Multi-Stakeholder Platform and cuts across two workstreams related to agriculture – Water and Livelihood Security in Rain-fed Agricultural Areas and Command Area Water Productivity.

Further reading:
Maharashtra Water Multi-Stakeholder Platform Steering Board
Swayam Shikshan Prayog’s work with women in agriculture