This report focuses on Mongolia’s capital and economic hub, Ulaanbaatar. Based on the water supply demand gap identified in the previous project phase, an inventory of implementable solutions to close the gap were identified and prioritized to allow for sustainable economic development.
By 2021, water demand will not be met with the available water resources in the high and medium water demand scenarios. By 2030, a water demand supply gap is estimated in all scenarios. In concrete, it has been estimated that 3% (4 mn m3/yr) and 28% (34 mn m3/yr) of total water demand will not be met with the given water supplies by 2030 in the low and medium water demand scenarios respectively. In the high water demand scenario, 43% of the total water demand (92 mn m3/yr) is estimated to not be met with given supplies by 2030. It is assumed that all surface water resources will be utilized and that the current groundwater yield will remain until 2030. If this is not the case, the water supply demand gap is expected to occur earlier and higher across all scenarios.
Solutions are focused around the key water users in Ulaanbaatar, which include the energy, domestic and industrial sectors. Analyzed solutions include water demand reduction and water supply augmentation measures. These were selected from ongoing (governmental) initiatives, such as the Implementation Plan of Ulaanbaatar City Master Plan 2030, from stakeholder consultations and were customized from international best cases to Ulaanbaatar’s context. The identified solutions were prioritized on the basis of an assessment framework which consists of financial, economic and environmental criteria.