In the face of profound global water challenges, on World Water Day five global multi-stakeholder partnerships representing business, governments, intergovernmental organizations, academia, and civil society organizations announced a new collaboration effort designed to accelerate progress toward ensuring the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation around the world.
The partnership was catalyzed by the discussions at the 8th World Water Forum in Brasilia, including the Citizens Forum and Sustainability Focus Group, and the High-Level Panel on Water report, “Making Every Drop Count”. The report says if the world continues on its current path, it may face a 40 percent shortfall in water availability by 2030. Health, food security, energy sustainability, jobs, cities, and ecosystems are increasingly at risk due to exacerbating natural variability of the water cycle and growing water stress.
The World Bank Water Global Practice, 2030 Water Resources Group, Global Water Partnership, World Water Council, and UN Global Compact’s CEO Water Mandate commit to coordinate a set of actions toward increased water security. Water security underpins economic growth, social development and environmental sustainability.
- The Making Every Drop Count report also finds:
- 40 percent of the world’s population is affected by water scarcity
- As many as 700 million people could be displaced by 2030 in search for water
- More than 2 billion people are compelled to drink unsafe water
- 4.5 billion people do not have access to safely managed sanitation
Aiming to find collaborative solutions to better manage and value water, the global multi-stakeholder partnerships will explore how to more effectively coordinate and align their efforts toward the urgent goal of water security, in line with the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.
On World Water Day 2018, the organizations agreed to:
Take into account the outcomes of the 8th World Water Forum, proposed by the various political, thematic, regional, citizen, and sustainability processes
Endorse the recommendations of the High-Level Panel on Water (HLPW) “Making Every Drop Count”
Recognize the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 17) that promotes partnerships as a key means of implementation of the 2030 development agenda – in particular for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals calling for a Water Secure World (SDG6)
Commit to convene a series of discussions between the leaders of the organizations, starting in August 2018
Explore and agree on pathways towards improving global coordination and collaboration among these and other organizations, in view of accelerating progress towards a water-secure world
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“Through this partnership, the World Bank Group aims to build an alliance of committed stakeholders to catalyze change and implement the recommendations of the High-Level Panel on Water. The goal of global water security requires an urgent coordinated response amongst dedicated international development organizations.”
Guangzhe Chen, Senior Director, World Bank Water Global Practice
“The World Water Council is pleased to offer its expertise in gathering stakeholders from every horizon to mobilize political will and catalyze positive action for the cause of water. We are stronger together than we are individually, and joining our voices gives new inspiration and opportunity to accelerate and enforce our efforts towards an integrated agenda at the global, regional and local levels.”
Benedito Braga, President, World Water Council
“The Global Water Partnership is prepared to offer its on-the-ground multi-stakeholder networks to advance better water governance. It is time for policy makers to make SDG6 implementation a top priority.”
Dr. Oyun Sanjaasuren, Chair, Global Water Partnership
“2030 WRG is committed to this global framework. Contributing to sustainable implementation models at scale, we will leverage our country partners, particularly private sector, as key collaborators in this effort.”
Karin Krchnak, Program Manager, 2030 Water Resources Group/World Bank Group
“Water challenges pose critical risks to businesses, governments, and communities alike. The only way we can tackle them is by deepening our collaboration within the water sector.”
Jason Morrison, Head, CEO Water Mandate
World Water Council
Communications Coordinator, a.i.
Global Water Partnership
Head of Communications
Office: +46 8 1213 8640, Mobile: +46 76 677 8640
CEO Water Mandate
Office: (510) 251-1600 ext. 117
2030 Water Resources Group/World Bank Water Global Practice
Office: +1 202 4733272 Mobile: +1 202 823 6896
The 8th World Water Forum will be held from 18 to 23 March 2018, in Brasilia, Brazil.
Join our sessions, pop by the booth to pick up some new publications and chat with some of our colleagues.
|Day of the week||Time||Session||Who|
|Sunday, March 18 (09:30-20:00 Water Business Day)|
|14:00-17:00||The Circular Business Case for WAter||Karin Krchnak (moderating)|
|Monday, March 19|
|17:00-20:00||Ministerial Roundtable Discussion on People||Karin Krchnak (moderating)|
|17:00-20:00||Antea Group brainstorming session on how
to mitigate risks to sustainable business
|16:45||UN Global Compact Collective Action Day (side-event):
Roundtable on Collaboration for Water Security in Brazil
|Stela Goldenstein (moderating)|
|Tuesday, March 20|
|11:00-12:30||High-Level Panel on Water Special Session||Karin Krchnak (attending)|
|14:30-16:00||Water & Green Growth: Accelerating the Green Transition for All||Karin Krchnak (presenting)|
|17:00-18:00||Conference of Judges and Prosecutors: Water Justice and Forests: Scientific, Ethical, Legal and Policy Perspectives||Karin Krchnak (presenting)|
|Wednesday, March 21|
|11:00-12:00||International Water Stewardship Standard||Karin Krchnak (presenting)|
|16:30-18:00||People, Science and Governments: Towards Inclusive Knowledge Co-generation for Water and Climate Goals||Karin Krchnak (presenting)|
|Thursday, March 22 (World Water Day)|
|09:00-10:30||Water-use efficiency and sustainable withdrawals: coping with water scarcity||Rochi Khemka and Stela Goldenstein (presenting and coordinating)|
|11:00-12:30||International Cooperation as key factor to address the Water and Climate Relationship||Karin Krchnak (presenting)|
|14:30-18:00||Sustainability at the 8th World water Forum||Karin Krchnak (presenting)|
|17:00-18:00||2030 WRG Apéro at the Swiss Water Partnership Pavilion
Multi-Stakeholder Approaches to Innovation and Impact
|2030 WRG Team|
World Bank Group Sessions and Side Events
(click on the image below)
World Bank Group joint booth (Expo hall: E20B)
Please contact Alida Pham, 2030 WRG Communications Officer (email@example.com)
Davos, Switzerland. January 2018 – The 2030 WRG Governing Council came together in snow-covered Davos, Switzerland during the World Economic Forum Annual Meetings to discuss the program’s 2017 progress, results and path forward.
Paul Bulcke, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Nestlé, initiated his co-chairmanship of 2030 WRG by highlighting the recently launched World Economic Forum Global Risk Report in which water has remained the common denominator for many years in a row. He emphasized that water security remains a precondition to the successful resolution of other pressing development issues. Mr. Bulcke remarked on the scale of the water challenges facing us today and emphasized that ideas are needed to be able to operationalize multi-stakeholder partnerships at scale while aligning commitments and targets with ambitions.
Hosting by the World Bank
Karin Krchnak was introduced as the new 2030 WRG Program Manager, stationed in the World Bank in Washington, DC. The World Bank Water Global Practice Senior Director Guangzhe Chen presented on the World Bank’s priorities, and outlined the opportunities for synergies and collaboration with 2030 WRG and its partners going forward.
The Governing Council members acknowledged the efforts of the IFC and the Water GP team in managing the transition of the 2030 WRG from the IFC to the World Bank, and thanked Anders Berntell for his leadership over the last six years.
Opportunities for synergies and collaboration
Elsa Galarza, Minister of Environment of Peru, elaborated on 2030 WRG’s support to the government’s water strategy and spoke about the importance of a neutral platform that engages all actors in the water debate. She highlighted the Taxes for Projects initiative as a good example of a concrete multi-stakeholder partnership that leads to concrete results.
Academic review by the Harvard Kennedy School
Jane Nelson, Director of the Corporate Responsibility Initiative (CRI) at the Harvard Kennedy School, presented on the Harvard Kennedy School CRI case study on 2030 WRG, commissioned by Coca Cola. In this first academic analysis of the 2030 WRG approach, the 2030 WRG’s multi-stakeholder institutional model is outlined along with five first lessons relevant for leaders working on water security and other complex, systemic challenges.
Participants reviewed the state of play of 2030 WRG activities. In 2017, 2030 WRG brought together 642 partners in 46 working groups in 14 countries/states. Together, 72 priority areas have been agreed and 83 concept notes developed to concretize those areas. To date, 67 proposals have been developed, preparatory arrangements for 58 of these proposals have been elaborated, and 53 of these are being implemented on the ground.
Participants agreed that scaling up with ambition includes paying closer attention to transboundary issues, transcending sectors and expanding 2030 WRG’s geographical spread to include the poorest countries, where needs are extremely high. Following the meeting, discussions were held with partners who may be interested in joining 2030 WRG.
Mexico City, March, 2018 – A 2030 WRG delegation recently traveled to Mexico to meet with the World Bank Group country team in Mexico, and other relevant stakeholders. The delegation included new 2030 WRG Program Manager, Karin Krchnak, 2030WRG Mexico Representative, Roman Gomez Gonzalez Cosio, and 2030 WRG LAC Regional Head, Cesar Fernando Fonseca Sarmiento.
The meetings included discussions with the World Bank team in Mexico to align our strategy, coordinate and foster synergies with stakeholders and partners, as well as meeting with IFC counterparts to discuss joint efforts to develop PPPs in the agri-water sector. The study on PPPs for Agri-water was also the focus of the team’s meeting with CONAGUA.
The team also met with Jesus Reyes Heroles, President of Consejo Consultivo del Agua (CCA), a multi-stakeholder water advisory council, to discuss the CCA working groups that 2030 WRG is supporting.
This includes the Green Infrastructure Solutions Initiative, focused on developing the business case for green infrastructure solutions and identifying barriers and opportunities for implementation. The Initiative plans to organize a best practice exchange workshop in mid-2018. Representatives of the working group on Water Security and Legal Certainty Risks Integration in the Industrial Sector discussed the value of water security and legal certainty risks integration. The team also met with private sector stakeholders to discuss potential areas of collaboration in the area of strengthening water governance systems.
Another area of focus has been concern regarding increasing groundwater overexploitation and pollution in the region of Toluca. 2030 WRG has been working with CONAGUA, CEVAT and the Rio Lerma Commission to reestablish and then strengthen this multi-stakeholder groundwater management committee and to support sustainable groundwater management. The Toluca Metropolitan region is also severely polluted and 2030 WRG has identified the opportunity to incorporate integrated wastewater management. 2030 WRG will align its efforts with existing initiatives in Water Resilience and Integrated Urban Water Resources in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Toluca, and will seek to coordinate also with World Bank Water GP and IFC in particular to develop synergies in groundwater management, resilience and integrated wastewater management.
Addis Ababa, November 9, 2017 – The 2030 WRG team in Ethiopia has recently held two brainstorming sessions, entitled Water for Agriculture’ and ‘Water for Industrialization’. The meetings were conducted as part of a series of consultative meetings with potential public, private and civil society partners in anticipation of the establishment of a national Ethiopia 2030 WRG multi-stakeholder partnership.
The sessions were well-attended by active industry practitioners from Ethiopia’s water sector. Ideas to accelerate water use efficiency were explored as well as water productivity improvements in the agricultural and industrial sector. The findings of the brainstorming sessions will be used as input for an upcoming hydro-economic analysis for Ethiopia.
The analysis will support partners in identifying and aligning joint initiatives towards sustainable water resources management goals, thereby enabling long term economic growth. It will include an overview of the Ethiopian water context, to be used by policy makers for high-level decision making, and will define concrete roles and investment opportunities for the private sector.
The sessions were attended by the following stakeholders:
Agriculture: Moyee Coffee, Ethiopian Cotton Producers and Exporters Association, Ethiopian Sugar Cooperation, AfriFlora/SHER, Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association, Grundfos, Larive/Shayashone, Embassy of the Kingdom of The Netherlands, Solidaridad, Dutch Water Authorities, Abay River Basin Authority, Awash River Basin Authority, Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity.
Industry: IWaSP, Diagio/Meta Brewery, Yirgalem Addis Textiles Factory, Ethiopian Development Textile Institute, Vitens Evidens International, The Dow Chemical Company, Arvind, H&M, Grundfos, Dutch Water Authorities, Abay River Basin Authority, Awash River Basin Authority
In an effort to further expand 2030 WRG’s reach beyond its current scope, the Governing Council members agreed at a meeting in January 2016, to scout other potential countries where our partnerships could help countries achieve a water-secure future. As a result, a short scoping assessment was held mid-2016, to map existing stakeholders, assess the political economy and willingness of government to engage with the private sector. Following this successful mission and an official invitation by the Ethiopian government, a hands-on team was recruited to set-up and roll out the 2030 WRG program in Ethiopia.
By 2050, we will need to increase food production by 100% to feed expanding populations in developing countries. This is either from more farmers producing more food or, the same number of farmers producing more food. Enhancing farmer incomes by increased agricultural productivity will reduce migration to urban areas and ultimately, improve food security. But without assured buyers for the produce, this may not necessarily be the case.
I recently visited sugarcane farmers in western Maharashtra in India to learn why they continue to grow sugarcane although it is a water intensive crop. Turns out, sugarcane is resistant to most pests, needs little care and has a well-established supply chain. Given that the crop has an assured buyer in sugar factories, farmers have little to worry about their household income from agriculture. Even if a farmer has a meagre 2 hectares of land, he prefers growing sugarcane as it has a guaranteed return on investment. This makes it difficult for the farmer to give up the crop. At present, Maharashtra accounts for 34% of the national sugar output. Consequently, several government schemes and initiatives are designed to make sugarcane more water productive i.e. shifting from flood to drip irrigation, and improving sugarcane productivity. Currently, average sugarcane yield in Maharashtra is approximately 60 to 80 tonnes per hectare whereas its yields can potentially increase to 100 to 120 tonnes per hectare.
On the other hand, focusing on a particular crop might not always lead to positive outcomes. Farmers in drought prone district of Yavatmal in eastern Maharashtra had a different story to tell. Cotton, a dominant crop in this region was infested by the pink ball worm in the last season (2017-18). As a result, farmers faced several losses and did not receive the expected price in the market. Several women farmers organized themselves into self-help groups with the aim of supporting family income due to the losses incurred. But lack of market connectivity dissuaded them from taking actions to develop products such as baskets, papadums, jams, etc. Limited market access and low selling opportunities prevented them from contributing to the household income which could have compensated for the losses they realized through the ravaged cotton crop.
Linking farmers to the markets may help them move out of poverty by assured buyers for their produce and guaranteed income – giving a greater sense of security. Although establishing market linkages may take time, initiatives such as the new model Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Act 2017, the government is keen on looking at agricultural marketing from a holistic manner. This is while giving farmers the opportunity to directly sell produce in the market or to whoever is willing to offer the best price without an intermediary. Organizations such as the International Finance Corporation is exploring innovative ways to unlock private sector investments and offer advisory services that help mobilize markets. The 2030 Water Resources Group (2030WRG), hosted by the World Bank, is bringing together public, private and civil society representatives to deliberate and discuss new business models and market-based solutions to support an end-to-end integrated approach for agriculture development, with a focus on water security.
In an effort to bring farmers closer to the market, in Karnataka in the Ramthal area, 2030 WRG facilitated partnership agreements between agribusiness companies (retailers, exporters, processing units) and Government of Karnataka for offtake of high-value agricultural and horticultural produce, thereby improving farmer incomes and livelihoods. Similar efforts are being carried out by 2030 WRG in western Maharashtra to maximize water productivity and improve market linkages for farmers.
Finding new ways to connect smallholder farmers to the market is critical for poverty reduction and improved livelihoods. It can also stem the flow of farmers to urban areas in search of better jobs and transform the rural environment as a place of production and value addition. Although realizing the vision will require a more collaborative effort from the government, private sector, civil society and rural communities, its results will be far outreaching.
This blog was written by Karishma Gupte, Coordinator, Maharashtra, 2030 Water Resources Group, The World Bank Group
This blog has been written by Karin Krchnak, 2030 WRG Program Manager, as part of our newsletter blog series.
For the first time in my 25-year career, during the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September 2015 in New York City, I heard government after government note the important role of the private sector in addressing our global water challenges. It took a great deal of effort to conclude the SDGs and the agenda is one that charts a better future for our precious planet. That is if—if we can meet those goals or at least make significant enough progress on them. The comments by governments in New York in 2015 highlight the realization that no set of actors alone can ensure the SDGs will be met.
The 2030 Water Resources Group (2030 WRG) was formed out of the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos where there was a realization already in the early 2000s among corporate leaders that water issues, both quality and quantity, had the potential to significantly impact their operations, both current and future. Water topped the list of WEF Global Risks Report in 2015 for the first time, with many of the other risks (e.g., extreme weather events, failure of climate change adaptation) linked to how we manage water. The outlook is not getting better, with a business as usual approach by countries leading to approximately 40% gap between freshwater supply and demand 2030.
On January 1, 2018, 2030 WRG officially moved from the International Finance Corporation (IFC), where it sat after its incubation at WEF, to the World Bank, specifically to the World Bank Water Global Practice. While the IFC will remain an integral part of 2030 WRG, the change is intended to scale 2030 WRG’s innovative multi-stakeholder approach to help governments meet the extensive challenge of the water security agenda and leverage the wider potential of the World Bank Group to build momentum to help meet the SDGs.
I truly believe that only through collective action across stakeholders will be able to ensure a more sustainable future. In addition to my new role as Manager of 2030 WRG, I remain active in the World Water Council (WWC). The 8th World Water Forum, hosted WWC and the Government of Brazil, to be held in Brasilia in March 2018 will include the business community. A Business Day will be held the day before to the Forum, to be hosted by leading business associations. In addition, there will be High Level Panels with a focus on business and water scarcity. This is an evolution that I have witnessed first-hand in water fora over the last several decades where stakeholders are coming together to share and learn from each other, including the private sector as active contributors.
We all have a steep road ahead of us when it comes to water and meeting the SDGs. Not simply SDG6 on water, but all the others (e.g., energy, agriculture, poverty) that depend on us getting water right—as I termed it SDG6+. 2030 WRG has supported the creation of approximately 46 working groups across 14 country engagements where government, private sector and civil society are working together to reduce the gap between water supply and demand by digging in together on such areas as mining, wastewater reuse, and agricultural supply chains.
Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) are not new. I have been involved in many in my career. But having joined the recent Steering Board Meeting of the MSP in Karnataka, India, this is the first time where I have seen a platform where government actors across agencies (e.g., water, agriculture, planning), the private sector, and civil society take joint decisions on improving water resource management and then follow up with action. MSPs take time to build but once formed on a basis of trust and agreed understanding of the hydro-economic situation of a country or basin, the potential is there to drive toward action on the SDGs.
The MSPs that 2030 WRG has helped develop include the highest levels of government, private sector and civil society. They take decisions on actions in watersheds, basins, and policy changes at the national level. While each of the MSPs is transforming water resource management in their own country or state, they are also shaping the broader agenda on water. MSPs in Mongolia, Bangladesh and Peru, for example, are breaking through on economic incentives and water valuation, something that I have seen missing in the water space in the last decades but which has also gained traction through the High-Level Panel on Water. MSPs thus function individually but also collectively.
I feel honored to be leading 2030 WRG, as its disruptive approach is a part of the process toward achieving the SDGs. We could not progress without the efforts of all the partners and the continued engagement with new ones as we climb the steep road to 2030. I truly hope that in 2030 we can look back and say we achieved the SDGs — or at least made significant progress toward them. I do not know how I can look my daughter in her eyes if I did not feel I had at least some small part in that.
Agriculture in Tanzania consumes over 90 percent of water with most of it using inefficient gravity open canal and flooding or basin technologies. These methods lead to up to 45 percent water losses. This is despite the fact that critical parts of Tanzania and the Pangani River Basin, in particular, are considered “water-stressed” regions having 1,200 cubic meters per capita of renewable internal fresh water, compared to 1,608 cubic meters for Tanzania as a whole by 2015 (WB, Tanzania Economic Update 2017).
Although most of the farmers use buckets and watering cans, over the last few years, the use of 1.5-6.7hp motorized pumps combined with flood or basin irrigation has been on the rise. Though easy to install and cheapest among available technologies (compared to solar, electricity and wind), these pumps have high maintenance costs and short lifespan. At the same time, the open canal systems have the lowest efficiency rates of only 15-25 percent compared to 60-80 percent for lined canals and 90 percent for piped systems. The flooding/basin application systems on the other hand, though cheaper, also has low-efficiency rates of 60-70 percent compared to 90 percent for drip and 80 percent for sprinkler systems.
In 2018, the 2030 WRG Partnership in Tanzania plans to leverage funding from Rikolto (formerly VECO East Africa) to conduct focused assessments, carry out pilots and eventually develop viable financial products for water efficient irrigation technologies required by semi-commercial, commercial smallholder farmers and medium-sized farmers in Kikuletwa Catchment in Kilimanjaro region. This initiative aims to inform an ongoing design of a National Irrigation Financing Facility targeting to improve water use efficiency and agricultural water productivity. The partnership is working in collaboration with Financial Sector Deepening Trust (FSDT), Tanzania Agricultural Development Bank and National Irrigation Commission to name a few.
The planned assessment aims to target smallholder farming groups such as:
(i) Semi–Commercial Smallholder farmers with cultivated land < 2ha
(ii) Commercial Smallholder with cultivated land (10-100 ha)
(iii) Medium sized (Emerging) Farmers with cultivated land (2-10 ha)
During the assessment, 2030WRG expects to develop and test three water efficient technological and financial solutions.
This assessment will focus on nailing down the suggested solutions per farmer profile as well as the expected return on investment. At the same time, a quick scan of the existing financial products will be done. The research findings will also be used in persuading other financial institutions to develop lending products for irrigation financing.
The assessment will analyse the required investments costs and margins of the selected technologies and at the same time determine whether the investment required for the technology is affordable and adds value to the smallholder farmers.,. The end result will be to prove the investment case in order to increase financing by commercial banks or any other financial institutions. The assessment will also assess the existing range of financing options offered by equipment providers, commercial, public and donor lending institutions available in Tanzania and the East Africa region. The research aims to ensure that financing schemes are reviewed for different farmer profiles i.e. large/smallholder farmers, individual, cluster/groups of farmers, different technologies including a diverse portfolio of loans from the farmers’/investors perspective;
Developing technological and financial packages for irrigation financing
There are several companies supplying irrigation equipment, including pumps, pipes, sprinklers, centre pivots, linear move systems, and precision drip and micro-sprinkler systems. However, these companies’ products are suitable for medium-sized farmers and large-scale farmers. The working group aims to design solutions technological and financial solutions for the semi-commercial smallholder farmers and commercial farmers. While doing this, particular focus will be put in ensuring appropriateness of technology in terms of affordability, suitability, accessibility and matching the same with skills of different profiles of farmers.
Market testing and rollout
The stakeholders will select the value chains and a number of smallholder farmers for a pilot of the prototype financial products. During this stage, useful information will be collected and collated to enable improvements to be made on technology and financial products. To buy down some risks, the stakeholders will seek funding for piloting of new financing and technology products. Successful pilots will be commercialized and rollout.
The Government of Karnataka approved a policy for wastewater reuse for urban centres in December 2017, marking the culmination of extensive stakeholder deliberations to support the enabling environment for wastewater reuse. The policy, coupled with the establishment of a Wastewater Reuse Resource Cell to implement the policy, has been developed under the Urban Water Workstream of 2030WRG’s Karnataka Multi-Stakeholder Platform for Water (MSP-Water).
2030WRG established a multi-stakeholder wastewater reuse policy committee, which comprised members from the Government of Karnataka, private sector and civil society, including Toyota Kirloskar Motors, Jindal Steel Works, Arghyam, and Biome Environmental Trust, among others; and supported policy drafting.
The policy provides a comprehensive framework for wastewater reuse in Karnataka, integrating principles of cost recovery, equity and sustainability for urban wastewater management. It also includes a special focus on industrial reuse of treated urban wastewater, with the intention of supporting financial sustainability of urban local bodies and mitigating water supply risks for industry. Salient features of the policy, which covers all Class I and II urban centres, include,
• Reuse of not less than 20% STW is targeted, as a combined average across sectors, of total urban wastewater generated for identified Karnataka urban centers by 2020;
• At least 10 major cities/towns will have adopted integrated water resource management plans, developed as multi-sectoral initiatives and incorporating wastewater reuse principles and implementation plans therein, by 2020;
• Industrial estates/ zones within [30 km] of a sewage treatment plant (STP) mandatorily examine, as a first option, available secondary treated wastewater (STW) from the STP;
• The Department of Industries and Commerce may set a voluntary target for use of STW to comprise (indicatively) 20% of the total state-wide industrial water use, including energy sector, by 2020;
• Policy specifically seeks to acknowledge and encourage the practice of localized treatment of wastewater through constructed wetlands;
• Agricultural, industrial and urban non-potable uses will be considered to contribute to the reuse target;
• Tariff proposed (in Rs/KL) is applicable at the plant gate, or at in-city locations en-route of the sewerage network. The off-taker is responsible for meeting additional cost of conveyance to a specified location;
• Where off-take for industrial reuse requires tertiary treatment of a specific volume of STW to be undertaken by the city, operational costs for the same shall be recovered from industry through additional charges;
• ULBs will explore Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as a possible option for implementation of wastewater reuse projects.
An important feature of the policy is the constitution of a Wastewater Resource Cell to facilitate policy implementation. The Resource Cell, established at the state level will act as an information and transaction facilitation unit to support the development of projects, with the aim of ensuring that relevant quality parameters for each reuse category are met, towards development of innovative, cost-effective, and context-specific solutions for wastewater treatment and reuse. The centre will establish connections with global partners to reinforce and accelerate the transfer of best practices and shared learnings from implementation of wastewater reuse initiatives globally. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilitiesof other various bodies under the policy include,
• Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) will be responsible for monitoring secondary treated wastewater quality from treatment plants;
• Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) will co-ordinate alignment of wastewater reuse projects to AMRUT – Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation/alternate Government of India programs;
• Urban Development Department will undertake monitoring the performance of wastewater reuse projects, Budget and resource allocation, and Active partnerships;
• Department of Industries and Commerce will establish voluntary target for treated wastewater to comprise 20% of the total state-wide industrial water use by 2020;
• Department of Energy will coordinate partnerships of thermal power plants with urban centres within 50 km radius for off-take of all STW available.
A Management Committee constituted as part of the policy will monitor and supervise the implementation of the policy, chaired by the Secretary, Urban Development Department.
2030WRG’s work on wastewater reuse builds upon its earlier hydro-economic analyses on:
• Karnataka’s urban-industrial sectors (https://www.2030wrg.org/team/creating-a-sustainable-future-for-karnataka-urban-and-industrial-sector/);
• Rapid assessment of wastewater reuse for Karnataka https://www.2030wrg.org/team/wastewater-reuse-potential-rapid-assessment-of-urban-wastewater-reuse-opportunities-in-three-cities-of-karnataka/);
• A practitioner’s guide on circular economy pathways for municipal wastewater in India (https://www.2030wrg.org/team/circular-economy-pathways-for-municipal-wastewater-management-in-India-a-practitioners-guide/).
With the initiative and support of the 2030 WRG program in São Paulo, a working group is being established with the objective of supporting the implementation of new financing procedures that will allow greater effectiveness of investments and improved operation of autonomous sanitation services in small and medium-sized municipalities.
While Sabesp, a publicly traded water utility company controlled by the State of Sao Paulo, is responsible for providing water and sewage service to 366 municipalities of the State of Sao Paulo, there are 279 small and medium municipalities that operate their own water and sanitation systems in the state. These autonomous municipalities have a total population of 16.4 million inhabitants, approximately 38% of the population of the State of São Paulo.
Despite receiving subsidies from the Government of São Paulo for decades, the performance of sanitation services in many of these small and medium municipalities that operate without concession contracts with the state company (SABESP) or with private enterprises, remains very low. Although there is no available consistent data on sewage treatment, the water quality at the regional water bodies shows that only a small portion of their domestic sewage is collected and treated. In addition, even the small portion that is treated presents systematically lower quality of effluents than the legally defined standards for release into bodies of water.
The working group aims to identify the obstacles and barriers that have often rendered the investments historically ineffective, as well as to develop and propose consistent alternatives for financing and sustainably managing local systems. The various types of challenges are being identified.
In many cases, the local implementation of water and sanitation services does not favor the creation of technical management bodies capable of structuring projects, developing bids, controlling contracts. One proposal is to discuss the creation of clusters of municipalities that would allow the joint operation and the contracting of private services.
There are, however, political and institutional challenges for the organization of regional services which would articulate several municipalities. For example, the discussion about which would be the best criteria for the establishment of regional services raises concerns, also because the municipal administrative boundaries do not coincide with those of hydrographic basins.
Another complex challenge is the economic sustainability of sanitation services, since for many mayors the political costs of implementing sustainable tariffs for sanitation services are unacceptable.
Finally, subsidies policies and other sources of public financing need better levels of transparency. This might require initiatives involving public communication and debates that would guide the transition to sustainable tariffs. When subsidies are delivered without comprehensive discussions, the common consequence is social injustice and inefficient use of the resources.
The working group will support the development of technical, financial, legal and institutional solutions in coordination with the main local partners, in order to promote sustainable public and private investments and guarantee improvements in the quality of the rivers and streams of the State.