Corporate News

2030WRG and CONAGUA conclude capital investment prioritization system project

2016.08.10_MexicoCapitalinvestmentprioJuly 21, 2016 – In Mexico, after one year of intense collaborative work with CONAGUA, 2030WRG delivered the final version of CONAGUAs capital investment prioritization system.  This system will be used henceforth to prioritize CONAGUA´s main project portfolio in order to achieve strategic policy priorities established in the National Water Plan 2014-2018 and other policy instruments.

An important part of the project comprised a careful organization of a capacity-building process in order to ensure the full appropriation of the analytical tools used by the system. In order to achieve this, during the last mission to Mexico several capacity-buildings workshops were planned and carried out with the participation of all of the substantive units of CONAGUA. During these workshops CONAGUAs personnel had the opportunity to simulate several scenarios and used the prioritization system accordingly.  This versatility is possible because the system can be used through a very user-friendly interface that allows the dynamic consideration of several variables and policy objectives.  Comprehensive and in-detailed manuals were shared and reviewed with all the participants, and special one-to-one tutorials were held with the personnel of the Deputy Direction of Planning, the unit in charge of planning and programming investments in CONAGUA.

It is worth highlighting that the development and institutionalization of this capital investment prioritization system has been considered by CONAGUA as an important and warranted institutional development milestone. At the 2030WRG we would like to acknowledge the collaboration with CONAGUA and congratulate the institution on this important achievement, possible thanks to the strong political will and commitment of CONAGUAs leadership.

UP Chief Minister Funds River Rejuvenation

Book launchThe Hindon Yatra symposium and exhibition was  inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in Lucknow on June 27th. About sixty participants from industries, NGOs, communities, local government from across the Hindon Basin traveled to Lucknow to share their efforts to rejuvenate the Hindon river, heavily polluted by industrial and urban waste.

Hindon Yatra - Lucknow - Exhibition InaugrationThe 2030 Water Resources Group (2030 WRG) in partnership with India Water Partnership, Jal Jan Jodo Abhiyan, FICCI and the UP Government launched a report titled Hindon Yatra – a multi-stakeholder journey towards river rejuvenation documenting 20 case studies of multiple efforts to rejuvenate the river. The Chief Minister, Akhilesh Yadav inaugurated the exhibition showcasing all these works and applauded the local stakeholders from Hindon with a pledge of financial resources to scale up their work. He said “Hindon would become an integral part of his party’s Green Manifesto”.


Hindon Yatra - Lucknow - Exhibition greetingThe launch was preceded by a symposium which focused on demonstrating how every dimension of the complex processes involved in rejuvenating a river are already in motion in the Hindon. The discussions opened with an overview of global and national frameworks for basin wide approaches to water resource management presented by representatives from the EU, WWF and GRMP. This was followed by a session on urban waste water and industrial effluent management, where private sector water treatment technologies were presented from Muzzafarnagar. Local communities and district officials described how they were collaborating to recharge depleting ground water levels through pond rejuvenation in Noida. Finally, public-private models for solid waste management were presented. Anders Berntell, Executive Director, 2030 WRG, concluded “These good practices could collectively provide an integrated model for rejuvenating a river with potential for scale up across the Ganga basin”.

Chief Minister’s speech at Hindon Yatra’s Lucknow launch

Photos from the Lucknow Symposium and Exhibition



2030 Water Resources Group and Kenya Join Forces to Close Gap Between Water Supply and Demand


Engineer J. M Maina, Director of Water Services for the Laikipia County Government, at the Nanyuki Water Treatment Plant in Laikipia District.

Engineer J. M Maina, Director of Water Services for the Laikipia County Government, at the Nanyuki Water Treatment Plant in Laikipia District.
Nanyuki water and sewerage company is a corporate entity with the mandate of providing water, harvested from Likii Central River, and sanitation services within Nanyuki Municipality and its environs on self sustaining basis where water.

Copenhagen, 7 June, 2016 —The 2030 Water Resources Group (2030 WRG) today announced a partnership with Kenya at the Global Green Growth Forum (3GF) Summit in Denmark. The 2030 WRG is a unique public-private-civil society collaboration that aims to close the gap between supply and demand in water-stressed developing countries.

Without urgent action, the gap between global water supply and demand is projected to reach 40 per cent by the year 2030. In Kenya, taking a “business-as-usual” approach to managing its water resources will result in an almost 30% gap between water supply and the water required to meet the country’s development needs. Several areas central to Kenya’s economy, such as the Athi River Basin, are already feeling the effects of water stress.

The partnership between 2030 WRG and Kenya will allow for collaboration on a number of key areas:

expanding access to finance for efficient irrigation; catalyzing partnerships in water stressed catchments; and replicating best practices in urban and industrial water efficiency.

“Ensuring a safe and abundant supply of water is vital to transforming Kenya into an industrialized middle income country,” said Eugene Wamalwa, Cabinet Secretary, Ministry of Water and Irrigation. “This partnership with the private sector and civil society will help generate solutions to secure water for future generations. A problem shared is a problem halved and solved.”

Kenya Stills

Christine Shikuku, Environmental Officer at Tambuzi Limited, a flower farm located 180km north of Nairobi on the western foothills of Mount Kenya in Laikipia County, a 10,000km² wilderness haven, supporting large numbers of wildlife – many endangered. Tambuzi is the only large scale flower farm in the area which is dominated by small scale farms, each between two and six acres, mostly growing maize, intercropped with beans and potatoes. Tambuzi Ltd. has 25 hectares under horticultural production, with the rest dedicated to sustainable forestry, bee keeping, vegetables and livestock, and is run by Tim and Maggie Hobbs.

“Water is everyone’s lifeblood,” said Vimal Shah, CEO of Bidco Africa, one of Kenya’s leading manufacturers and marketers of consumer goods. “Agricultural processes account for 70% of global water use, so it’s imperative that we address water management in the agribusiness and manufacturing sectors. It is only through ambitious, collective efforts, such as the 2030 Water Resources Group partnership with Kenya, that we will deliver action at the scale needed to address the challenge.”

“The value of energy efficiency is now well known in the industry in Kenya. Water is the next challenge,” said Phyllis Wakiaga, CEO of the Kenya Association of Manufacturers. “Even more than energy, water requires strong engagement between the public and private sector to find solutions where it lacks or where there’s wastage, and this partnership is an important step in that direction.”

“Across the globe, WRG partnerships are helping push the water resources agenda to the forefront of high-level national debate,” said Anders Berntell, 2030 WRG Executive Director. “In Kenya, the appetite for such discussions, and the interest in exploring new approaches is very impressive. This will be critical to ensure Kenya’s sustainable development.”


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About 3GF

3GF forges international public-private partnerships with the goal of designing and accelerating solutions to intractable problems relating to green growth. It culminates in an annual summit, which is hosted by the Danish Government in collaboration with the governments of China, Kenya, Ethiopia, Mexico, Qatar, Vietnam and Korea. The summit convenes 250-300 global leaders from governments, international organisations, leading businesses, the financial sector and civil society. The theme of this year’s summit is, “A Call to Action –  Enabling Solutions at Speed and at Scale.”


Press contacts:

  • Alida Pham, Global Communications Lead,, +1 202 603 2535
  • Joy Busolo, Country Representative Kenya,, +254 722 226504


Ongoing progress in Bangladesh country engagement

Bangladesh Country Update

Supported by 2030 WRG, the Bangladesh Water Multi-Stakeholder Partnership (MSP), which was established in December 2015, has successfully worked to create strong champions in the Government of Bangladesh (at the policy level), private sector and civil society. Before 2030 WRG started its program in Bangladesh, the Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) primarily considered flood control and irrigation in its water resources management agenda. Now, increasingly, the MoWR is getting involved in water use efficiency, reuse, resource management and wastewater treatment.

Two ongoing processes in our Bangladesh work include:

Under the Water Governance and Sustainability Work-Stream, a task force has started working on Water Valuation and Incentives in Bangladesh. The purpose of this work is to explore valuation and pricing mechanism based on international best practices and create an incentives framework for better management of water resources including efficiency, re-use and wastewater treatment. The Task Force is led by the MoWR with strong participation from other Government entities, private sector and civil society such the National Board of Revenue, Central Bank, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Bangladesh high-level meetingTechnology, H&M, Nestle and others. A concept note will be presented during next Steering Board Meeting.

2030 WRG is supporting the formulation of the Bangladesh Delta Plan (BDP) 2100 as a partner with the Government of Bangladesh, Government of Netherlands and the World Bank Group. The BDP 2100 will identify and prioritize infrastructure investments (in water resources, energy, transport and other sectors) to ensure sustainable development of the Bangladesh Delta. The 2030 WRG is supporting the Investment Plan team to identify PPP opportunities in the water sector. The investment plan is expected to play a complimentary role to the Bangladesh Water MSP to identify private sector investment opportunities and improve the investment climate for private sector investments in water infrastructure.


Expanding our reach: 2030 WRG current scoping missions

World Map ScopingIn an effort to further expand our reach beyond our current scope, we are currently scouting other potential countries where our partnerships could help countries achieve a water-secure future. In Latin America, a comparative analysis recommended pursuing the scoping in Sao Paulo state (Brazil) and Colombia. A comparative analysis in Africa recommended pursuing the scoping process in Zambia and Ethiopia. Finally, in Asia, a scoping process will be conducted in Vietnam.

Before engaging in a new country, 2030 WRG has developed a set of country selection criteria as part of its scoping process. The first part of the process involves a background due diligence analysis of the countries being considered, consulting with many of our partners in the process, in order to fully understand risks and opportunities and the potential for a successful outcome of our engagement in the country. A more detailed scoping report then summarizes the research and analysis, focusing on aspects related to political economy, social context, hydrological context, key water institutions, key private sector partners, and international cooperation projects, as those factors influence the likely success of our new engagements.

A comprehensive stakeholder mapping follows to better understand who the critical actors are. Based on this exercise, we conduct an in-country scoping mission to meet with key local stakeholders, to understand the challenges and opportunities of the local water sector, identify key thematic areas of the water sector — which could be the focus of future multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) and working groups –, and to assess whether the 2030 WRG approach is suitable for a specific context. This entails listening to the needs of government, the private sector (in particular the companies that are consuming water) and civil society in order to jointly develop solutions to the water challenges.

2030 WRG Develops Mine Water Management Program in Mongolia

Mongolia Country Update

Mongolia MiningOn the basis of a recently concluded hydro-economic assessment of the mining sector in Mongolia, 2030 WRG is developing a regional mining program to incentivize better water management in Mongolia’s mining industry. The hydro-economic analysis focused on water demand reduction and water supply augmentation options for the Tavan Tolgoi and Shivee Ovoo regions of Mongolia. It highlighted surface water transfers as more expensive solutions compared with demand-side management options, and in some cases, groundwater use.

Through a series of awareness building workshops on the analysis, 2030 WRG has built capacity of government, private sector and civil society stakeholders on cost-benefit tools for water decision-making and effective water governance. Stakeholders recognized the value of the analysis for prioritization of technical solutions.

Mark Newby, Environmental Manager, Oyu Tolgoi, one of the biggest mining sites in the country, termed the analysis as a “paradigm shift” in Mongolian stakeholders’ understanding of possible water solutions.

Mongolia’s water demand is expected to exceed supply capacity before the year 2021 (PwC-2030 Water Resources Group Analysis, 2014). The South Gobi mining cluster is already experiencing water stress, with the mining industry (at 12.7% of current demand) poised to emerge as the biggest water user in the future.

Eight Mongolian mining companies, part of the IFC Mining Roundtable supported by 2030 WRG, have recently adopted a Voluntary Code of Practice for better water management. Read more about this Code of Practice here.

2030 WRG is currently engaging with mining companies, government stakeholders, and civil society organizations to design multi-stakeholder solutions to the challenge of the mine-water nexus. Such solutions will include a combine of regulatory, institutional, and technical changes to optimize water efficiency at mine operations and minimize wastewater.





Mexico: CONAGUA to institutionalize investment prioritization system developed with 2030 WRG

Mexico Country Progress Report

Conagua 2030 WRG meeting

In Mexico, the 2030 WRG has worked for several months alongside the different technical units of CONAGUA, and under the coordination of the Deputy Director of Planning, to strengthen its capital investment prioritization system. This system will help prioritise CONAGUAs annual investments included in its overall national project portfolio, and contains projects for the water supply and sanitation, the agri-water and the risk management sectors.  The initiative has involved analytical work, participatory workshops, technical meetings, and high-level dialogue.

The system developed comprises four different stages. The first stage (Projects Conceptualization) is oriented at identifying specific regional and local water resources challenges and developing initial project ideas and TofR to commission project feasibility studies.  The second stage (Projects Evaluation) is all about evaluating the selected project ideas through different feasibility studies and cost-benefit methodologies, a process geared at integrating CONAGUA’s project portfolio with the necessary technical information. The third stage (Projects Prioritization) uses an Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP), a multi-criteria approach that supports the prioritization of project portfolios according to different economic, social, environmental, political and institutional criteria. For this stage different sub-sectorial AHP models were developed. This stage also involved testing the AHP models for consistency and accuracy. The fourth stage (Strategic Dialogue) involves the establishment of a Project Committee within CONAGUA, where the prioritized project portfolio is discussed amongst senior civil servants in order to take final, informed and strategic decisions.

This initiative faced several contextual challenges that had to be addressed in order for the prioritization system to respond to actual institutional objectives and capability frontiers.  Also, some policy recommendations have been developed to support the correct institutionalisation of the system. Currently, the 2030WRG is undertaking a final stage of this initiative, that includes the fine-tuning of the AHP models and some capacity building. The work has been carried out with the support of AMEC Foster and Wheeler and Castalia Strategic Advisers.

Peru: Public-Private Partnerships make quality water possible for the most forgotten

Peru Country progress report

Peru participants meeting 1

The mechanisms to encourage participation between the private sector and the government of Peru are varied: from public-private partnerships, emergency decrees that involve the private sector, to an innovative mechanism created a few years ago called Works for Taxes, which basically allows businesses to deduct the taxes they have with the State in exchange for investing similar amounts in projects that directly benefit the population.

The scheme is a win-win situation as it enables the State to be present in underserved areas of the country, generating employment and accelerating through participation of the private sector the processes that would take much more time if undertaken unilaterally. Similarly, the private sector is useful for the revenue it gives, the reduced gaps in the infrastructure, the improved welfare and quality of life of the population, its reputation, the relationship with the surrounding communities, among others.

2030 WRG in Peru has been analyzing these modalities and promoting multi-sector synergies to establish efficient, coordinated and sustainable partnerships. It has agreements with the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation, as well as with the Ministry of Agriculture to strengthen these partnerships with the private sector.

A recent example of this work was the high-level working breakfast organized by 2030 WRG on May 6 with representatives of the State, the private sector, the academia, the civil society and the community to find the best alternative and sustainable solutions for a water treatment program of great potential in the Amazon that deserves to be continued and replicated.

Peru Field VisitDays before, a field visit made up of members of the Board of 2030 WRG and representatives of the private sector bodies and civil society visited water treatment modules-implemented by the Inclam Group at the request of the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation of Peru- in small communities in the Peruvian jungle. The leader of the community shared the advances that the access to drinking water has meant for his community and the other 64 neighbouring communities in reducing illnesses, giving dignity to its environment and improving its quality of life.

The mission was pleasantly surprised to see how with few resources substantial improvements could be achieved to the quality of life of the population through access to safe water. However, it was also learned that the financing of this project culminates at the end of 2016, with the adverse health implications that implies. With a view to finding a sustainable and lasting solution, a high-level working breakfast was held.

The breakfast was useful for evaluating the concrete alternatives that would enable the project to continue through mechanisms that include the direct participation and support of the private sector. The most notable alternatives were:  extend in the new government the emergency decree for at least two years which would allow the program to be carried out; present in the medium-term a public subsidy policy for the most remote communities; and evaluate alternatives for  maintenance and operation, for example through PPPs and Works for Taxes.

It was also proposed to establish a communal business management approach, evaluating other alternative technologies, as well as analyzing of costs and justifying them. The success of this venture and its continuity requires close coordination with those actors involved, and building trust and commitment with the communities and federations with which it works.

Less than a week after the meeting was held, there are new potential partners, and there have been interest from some actors for the sustainability of the project, including the interest of one company to finance the maintenance of installation modules.

This meeting to assist concrete solutions to specific community problems was facilitated by the 2030 WRG Working Groups in Peru.


Hindon Yatra: A Multi-stakeholder Platform for River Rejuvenation in Uttar Pradesh, India

Community initiative to revive aquatic eco-system through check-dams in dry river bed

Community initiative to revive aquatic eco-system through check-dams in dry river bed

A series of symposiums on River Rejuvenation & Water Resource Management will be held in the State of Uttar Pradesh (India) from end of June until end of August. It is accompanied by an inspiring multi-media exhibition to showcase local efforts made to rejuvenate one of the most polluted rivers in the Ganga basin, the River Hindon. “The traveling exhibition – so-called Hindon Yatra – demonstrates the power of multi-stakeholder approaches to river rejuvenation and provides a common platform for divergent groups to address local challenges”, says Siddhartha Prakash (Uttar Pradesh State Representative at 2030 WRG in India).

Multi-Stakeholder Approaches

Solid waste management & recycling initiative taken by NGO with support from private sector

Solid waste management & recycling initiative taken by NGO with support from private sector

A participatory tributary approach to river rejuvenation is gaining momentum across the country. Recent examples include the water quality monitoring stations of National Mission for Clean Ganga, World Wildlife Fund’s vision on cleaning up the Ramganga River in Uttar Pradesh, the Noyyal River Restoration Federation in Tamil Nadu and the ‘Punjab Model’ of the Kali Bein rivulet. The Hindon River, which is a tributary of the Yamuna River, originates in the Saharanpur district at the foothills of the Shivalik range and flows across the industrial belt of Western Uttar Pradesh before discharging into the Yamuna River in Noida. Due to urban, agricultural, and industrial waste which is being released without sufficient treatment into its waters, the Hindon is now one of the most polluted stretches in the Ganga basin.

Vision development for river rejuvenation

Ensuring continuous and unpolluted flow in the Hindon River and its tributaries is in the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh’ list of priorities. For this purpose a vision document is being prepared with the Department of Irrigation & Water Resources as nodal agency. Target is to achieve tangible outcomes through projects in the basin. To guide implementation from a strategic, timely and budgetary standpoint, a Steering Committee headed by the State’s Chief Secretary is being formed.

Hindon Panorama compressed

Hindon Panorama

From Vision to Action

The Hindon Yatra platform serves to unite divergent stakeholders, seek inputs for vision development and capture local best practices to develop larger projects for river rejuvenation. NGOs, industry, academia, local administration and the government of Uttar Pradesh will demonstrate how their collective efforts can serve as a model for participatory approaches in the Ganga basin and beyond.

Expert advisors comprising of senior leaders in the agricultural, industrial, domestic and ecological sectors are guiding the compilation of good practices from the Hindon basin into a compendium and multi-media exhibition. Examples of initiatives include topics such as solid waste management, composting and organic farming, agri-water use efficiency, water treatment technologies and recycling of waste water and groundwater recharge. Demonstrating good practices may inspire and encourage stakeholder groups and inhabitants in the basin to collaborate and undertake further actions going forward.

Buddh Purnima – A full moon ritual at the banks of the Hindon River

Buddh Purnima – A full moon ritual at the banks of the Hindon River

While 2030 Water Resources Group serves as secretariat, logistics, financial and in kind support will be provided by the stakeholders involved as participants and owners of the process.

Water for food, for energy, or for elephants?

Dave Butler Tanzania

Photocredit: Dave Butler, Tanzania

What we can learn from the Ruaha experience about our options for tackling water scarcity

It is a testament to the wealth of environment riches in Africa that a national park of 20,000 square kilometers – half the size of the Netherlands, more than twice the size of Yellowstone – can remain relatively unknown. This is the case with the Ruaha National Park in Southern Tanzania.  In fact, even fewer of us may have heard of the Ruaha were it not for the fact that the river that feeds the park, the Greater Ruaha, has been drying up. 

Blogpost written by Will Davies, 2030 WRG Regional Lead Africa, and Onesmo Sigalla, 2030 WRG Tanzania Country Representative.

Historically, this 300 mile river would consistently flow year round, but in 1993 the river dried up for the first time for a period of three weeks. By 1999 this had reached three months. In 2008 the documentary “Surviving the Drought”, which highlighted the plight of the park’s wildlife, notably its estimated 10,000 elephants, brought the park to the attention of a wider public. But the decline in water levels has continued unabated, with record low flows reported in 2012/13, and in some cases dry spells being reported even during the wet season.

The factors underlying this trend are both well known, and familiar. Rapid population growth in the catchment, and the country as a whole, has led to dramatic increases in demand for agricultural land, and consequent impacts on water, in particular via increased irrigation. For those interested in more detail, read the excellent “Water resources system analysis for the Usangu Plains and its subbasins” (2015) by Rikard Liden in the Global Water Practice. A particular challenge in the Ruaha is suitability of the flood plains for rice, a high-demand crop in Tanzania usually grown via water-intensive flood irrigation methods, with extremely inefficient traditional water abstraction and conveyance systems (especially for smallholders).  Much has been written on this topic. In the international press, the voice of the environment is perhaps heard the loudest, with emphasis placed on the need to secure the priceless ecological assets of the catchment.  In conversations in Tanzania, the weight of opinion differs, with a stronger emphasis on the importance of food security and livelihoods.

This challenge is illustrative of the raison d’être of the 2030 Water Resources Group. We bring together key stakeholders impacted by water stress, from across the public sector, private sector and civil society, to overcome these kinds of “tragedy of the commons” scenarios that so often occur in the water resource sector. In 2013, we were invited by the Government of Tanzania to set up a Tanzania 2030 Water Resources Group partnership, to drive collective solutions to address the growing gap between water demand and supply in the country.

Great Ruaha Catchment

The solutions being discussed in the context of the Great Ruaha Restoration Campaign, a new catchment level multi-stakeholder initiative convened by the Tanzania 2030 WRG partnership, fall into three broad categories:

Increasing water productivity in agriculture

More people equals more demand for food.  But the water we need to grow that food is finite. So we need to grow more with less, or generate “more crop per drop”.  The word productivity, rather than efficiency, is used deliberately, as hydrologists will rightly debate what “water consumption” means and whether, for example, flood irrigation is inefficient if the water that is not absorbed by the crops returns to the environment.  What is clear is that in many cases, as in the Ruaha, the use of more productive irrigation methods, such as drip and sprinkler systems, as well as other water-maximizing farming practices can increase agricultural productivity while reducing the amount of water that needs to be abstracted, thereby allowing the farmer to grow more with less.

This inevitably leads to the question of how to finance “modern” irrigation technologies which, while more productive, are also more capital intensive; a big challenge for cash-strapped smallholder farmers.  This is a challenge we are tackling through the 2030 WRG, not just in Tanzania but also in Karnataka (India) and Kenya.  This topic is worthy of a future article in itself, so watch this space.

Dealing with trade offs

Secondly, while water productivity is often the easiest starting point, water scarcity may ultimately require harder decisions to be made around water allocations.  For example, it is not economically rational to be operating hydropower plants on the Ruaha river well below their operating capacity on account of lower value abstraction of water upstream for irrigation.  Likewise, increasing irrigation productivity may not solve the environmental challenge if the “savings” are simply used to expand further land under irrigation downstream.

The challenge here, of course, is that water allocations are motivated by cultural and political, as well as economic, considerations.  Getting the balance right ultimately requires some level of adjudication or “refereeing” between sectors – i.e. ensuring that the interests of the energy, agriculture and tourism sectors collectively represent the optimal outcome for the country.  Making this work in practice is a major challenge for any country, and represents an important value add that 2030 WRG can play, given its role in convening stakeholders from across sectors, both public and private.  Indeed, the planned Great Ruaha Restoration Campaign is being set up with this cross-sector coordination objective in mind.

It should also be noted that effective regulation is a pre-condition for effective allocation decisions.  If no one is monitoring or enforcing water abstractions in the first place, then discussions around allocations across sectors and water using groups can only go so far.  Hence, as in the case of the Ruaha, strengthening monitoring and regulation of permits is vital, as is getting the incentives for monitoring and enforcement right, in a context of politically-viable pricing (again a topic worthy of longer discussion).

Tanzania dry riverInfrastructure solutions

Another category of solutions to the challenges in the Ruaha lie in infrastructure.  The recent “Integrated Water Resources Management and Development Plan” for the Rujiji Basin (within which the Ruaha lies) strongly recommends increasing agricultural water productivity, but also the construction of larger infrastructure to allow for large scale storage of water, and hence regulation of dry season flows.  Additional infrastructure is certainly an important part of the puzzle, especially in countries, like Tanzania, with very low aggregate water storage capacity.  However, raising any level of commercial finance for such projects is inevitably challenging, given the public nature of most benefits, and hence such projects generally have to wait for large scale concessional funding to come available.  In the meantime, hydro-economic research by 2030 WRG shows that, in many cases, demand side solutions offer better cost-benefit returns than capital intensive supply side interventions.